Glossary

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A

AA (Active Area)

Active area of the matrix

AD Board

A device with which it is possible to feed a video signal to a display via HDMI, DVI, VGA or Composite. Different modules have different sets of connectors.

B

BGA (Ball Grid Array)

A type of integrated circuit in which the housing is characterized by a spherical position in a raster grid. Connections, as a rule, are located at the bottom of the circuit.

Bonding optyczny

Bonding the touch panel to the display through a transparent, UV-curable LOCA (wet bonding) adhesive or OCA (dry bonding) film. Thanks to optical bonding, reflections between the touch panel and the display are reduced, which significantly improves the optical parameters of the obtained image (deeper contrast, higher brightness, readability in high light conditions).

Break Out Board

A board that outputs FFC tape signals to pin connectors.

Bridge Board

A board that connects, for example, two FFC tapes.

C

Clever System

A type of technology that results in a significant reduction in design time when you want to upgrade your application from Mono LCM displays to LCD-TFT. By using the Clever System, such an upgrade becomes cheaper (the ability to use a cheaper or installed controller in the Mono LCM display, reducing the amount of control circuitry and PCB area required), faster and more reliable. This is made possible by built-in routines that are run using commands sent over the serial interface. An integrated control chip adjusts the intensity of the backlight, keeps the contents of the displayed frame in memory, facilitates fast, bulk loading of graphics into the display’s memory via the USB interface, and enables the generation of characters and shapes on the screen. This allows the use of a cheaper microprocessor and prevents expensive and time-consuming redesign of existing applications.

COF (chip-on-film)

New technology for mounting controllers on tape, following TAB (Tape Automated Bonding) and COG technology.

COG (chip-on-glass)

Technology in which the controller is mounted directly on the glass of the display. Displays having a COG are characterized by a smaller thickness of all external dimensions, and thanks to a more airtight design, they are more airtight and shockproof.

Customizacja / product customizowany

A customized product is a non-standard product, created to meet the needs of the customer according to their specified needs and given guidelines.

D

DFSTN (Double Film Super-Twisted Nematic)

FSTN matrix type with a double layer of compensation film. The DFSTN matrix is characterized by higher contrast than FSTN.

Digital Signage

The use of digital image media to convey advertising content, information or messages. A major advantage of digital signage is the ability to remotely and centrally control the entire network of information displays, regardless of their number.

DIO (digital input /output)

Digital input output in electronic devices.

DSA (Double Sided Adhesive Tape)

Double-sided adhesive tape.

E

Ekranowanie EMI (electromagnetic interferrence)

The process of suppressing electromagnetic interference that can adversely affect the operation of electrical equipment.

EMI (electromagnetic interferrence)

The ability of a given electronic device to work properly in a given electromagnetic environment.

eMMC (embedded MultiMedia Card)

MMC memory along with the controller housed in a BGA enclosure.

EPD (Electronic Paper Display)

Displays that mimic the appearance of ink on paper. EPD displays are extremely thin and require power only when the image changes. Unlike traditional panels using liquid crystals or OLED cells, EPD panels rely on a phenomenon called electrophoresis (the movement of electrically charged molecules in an electric field). EPD matrices are very widely used as e-newspapers, e-visitors, e-pricing, e-books and others.

ESD (electrostatic discharge)

Electrostatic Discharge. A short and rapid electrical impulse flowing between two objects with different electrical potentials.

EVE (ang. Embedded Video Engine)

An innovative graphics solution developed by FTDI that allows simultaneous use of three functionalities: video, audio and touch, without the need to write a separate program yourself to allow, for example, testing of the display.

F

FFC (Flexible Flat Cable)

Flexible flat cable. The FFC tape marking system is as follows: FFCxxyyzzz X (xx – raster, e.g.05 is 0.5 mm, 10 is 1 mm; yy- number of pins; zzz – length of tape given in mm, e.g. 040 means 40 mm; X – means contacts located alternately, no letter means contacts on both sides on the same side).

FSTN (Film Compensated Super-Twisted Nematic)

STN matrix with an additional compensation filter between the STN matrix and the rear polararot, resulting in higher contrast and better sharpness of the display. It is a technology commonly used in many character and graphics LCD panels with a resolution of 320×240 or less.

FT8xx kontroler

RGB controller that allows the use of QSPI, SPI and I2C interfaces. With it, it is possible to control displays with RGB interface through small controllers. The controller board has a built-in LED inverter and a unified 20-pin ZIF connector in a 0.5 mm raster for all display sizes. The FT8xx family of controllers have a built-in Embedded Video Engine (EVE), which includes widgets that make it easy and simple to create your own application.

G

GFG (glass- film- glass)

Resistive touch panel structure based on the following components: glass – film – glass.

H

High Tni LC

A type of technology that improves the performance of the display in bright sunlight. Prolonged exposure to strong sunlight is associated with excessive heating of the display surface (up to 110°C). In classic LCD displays operating in such conditions, black spots are formed on the matrix. By using High Tni LC technology, this phenomenon is eliminated.

HMI (Human Machine Interfaces)

Panel computers that prove themselves as interface devices wherever there is a need to control technological processes while presenting data in a friendly and aesthetically pleasing way. These panels are built on x86 and ARM processors, which guarantee high performance with low power requirements. A rich set of interfaces and mounting methods (including VESA) allows quick implementation of the finished product. HMI users can use prepared complete Android, Linux and BSP sources for Windows CE.

I

Inwersja skali szarości

A phenomenon that occurs when a user, looking at the display from one side and crossing a certain angle characteristic of the display, notices a sudden change in the colors of the displayed image (gray begins to dominate). This inversion primarily affects TFT displays made with TN technology.

IPS (In-Plane Switching)

In an IPS matrix, liquid crystals are arranged parallel to the screen surface, resulting in very wide horizontal and vertical viewing angles. Panels with IPS have an even backlight and better color fidelity. There is no grayscale inversion effect that characterizes popular TN matrices. Also, the decrease in contrast when increasing the viewing angle is much lower.

IR (infrared) panel dotykowy

Touch panels that operate based on infrared technology.

K

Kanapka (sandwich)

Several interconnected modules. The modules are stacked on top of each other, hence the name “sandwich.”

Kandela (skrót: Cd, Cd/m2)

Luminance unit. The measure of illuminance is candela per square meter (cd/m²).

Kompensacja temperaturowa

Temperature compensation is based on automatic consideration of temperature changes in the operating parameters of the display. Prevents problems associated with contrast changes with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The use of this technology makes it possible to automatically increase the contrast when the temperature drops and reduce it in the opposite situation.

Komputery modułowe (COM, Computer On Module)

COMs make it possible to quickly create a ready-made computer platform that can be upgraded very easily by replacing the selected module with a newer one. At the same time, it is possible to create several variations of base boards so as to prepare devices that differ in supported interfaces and derived signals without having to vary other design elements.

Konfiguracja / Produkt konfigurowalny

A standard product that requires individual determination of the configuration from the available parameters (configuration options).

L

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

LCD-type screens display an image consisting of millions of separate cells, which translate into their resolution. The principle of LCD is based on, among other things. on the phenomenon of light polarization and the specific properties of liquid crystals, whose structure changes when a voltage is applied to them. Transparent conductive substances are also used in LCD screens. The idea behind the LCD is to take advantage of the change in the polarization of light caused by changes in the position of liquid crystals on which an electric field acts.

LED (Light-Emitting Diode)

A semiconductor electronic device that emits light when exposed to current flowing through it.

Local dimming

A technology that involves zonal blanking of the screen’s backlight depending on the content currently being presented on the display. Achieving an area of black in displays with Local Dimming is affected not only by the lack of light transmission through the LCD-TFT matrix in this area, but also by the extinction of the backlight underneath this area. Such a solution allows to obtain much higher contrast and deeper blacks, and significantly reduces the power consumption of the matrix.

M

MaxRGB

The technology, whose main advantage is higher color saturation and much more faithful reproduction of the colors of the presented material compared to the natural view. MaxRGB technology allows for more colors than the sRGB standard, or even AdobeRGB, obtaining saturation levels of 94 – 97% relative to the NTSC D65 standard.

MMC (MultiMedia Card)

A memory card that is an interesting alternative to SD cards.

Moduły SOM (System On Module)

Complete processor modules based mostly on ARM processors. With the additional presence of RAM and a power system, they are an interesting alternative to single-board computers based on x86 processors and stand-alone designs. The use of the SOM allows for a significant reduction in design and testing costs, while keeping production costs low. Available baseplates, rich documentation and source codes allow you to quickly start working with the module of your choice. In addition, the baseplates are also ideal for building the final solution, guaranteeing rapid product launch.

N

Nit (skrót: nt)

An obsolete, non-SI unit of luminance (a measure of illuminance), 1 nt = 1 cd/m2.

O

O-film

A special filter on the display surface that reduces the effect of grayscale inversion. With O-film, the displayed image is clearer from all angles.

OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode)

OLED technology based on the phenomenon of light emission by organic compounds under the influence of an applied voltage. OLED panels require no additional backlighting and provide accurate color reproduction. In addition, unlike LCD displays, it is possible to achieve true black on the display, thus achieving much higher contrast. OLEDs also offset the problem of limited viewing angles and excessive matrix response time. OLED panels are very thin and more energy efficient.

P

Pojemnościowy panel dotykowy

A panel that responds to changes in capacity when touched. Its surface is constructed of glass, which allows easier cleaning and makes the screen scratch-resistant. In addition, capacitive touch panels include multitouch functionality and are getting better at dealing with water and dirt on the surface.

PoP (Package on Package)

Mounting memory directly on the processor.

Projected Capacitive Technology (PCT)

Currently, the most advanced capacitive screen design technology in the world. Among other things, the use of PCT in the touch panel enables support for multi-touch mode, i.e. tracking from 1 to 10 touch points (or more) simultaneously, depending on the controller configuration. PCT provides very high precision and much higher resistance to various types of errors caused by, among other things. Panel dirt. Depending on the controller’s configuration, the PCT creates the possibility of adding new functionalities, such as increased resistance to electromagnetic interference, gloved operation and proper operation despite the presence of water on the surface.

R

Ramka montażowa

Mounting holes for easy installation in the device occurring in the form of mounting ears or holes in the display itself.

Rezystancyjny panel dotykowy

Touch panel operating on the principle of changing the resistance of the sensor under the influence of touch. The touch sensor is made of two resistive films that physically connect at the point of touch. The contact location is described by the resistance value, which the microcontroller converts to a point.

RSA (Rear Sided Adhesive Tape)

Double-sided adhesive tape, a term often used interchangeably with DSA.

S

SBC (Single Board Computer)

Single-board computers that combine high integration scale and small device size. The mini PCs were created as a response to the need in some applications to move away from single-chip microcontrollers in favor of solutions that are more advanced, flexible and that allow the use of existing operating systems. In addition to being able to use popular operating systems, they are based on the familiar PC architecture, provide support for standard serial interfaces, allow the use of graphics and ready-made tools.

SD (Secure Digital)

A memory card standard developed by Panasonic, SanDisk and Toshiba.

Shield

This is an overlay on a prototype board.

SSD1963 kontroler

The controller, which has a built-in memory of 1215 kB to support TFT displays with a maximum resolution of 864×480 pixels. The use of a unified 36-pin connector on the PCB allows the use of different display sizes. In addition, the controller board is equipped with a parallel interface and a built-in LED inverter.

Stiffener

Stiffener at the end of the FPC tape. With a stiffener, connecting a display or touch panel is easier and safer.

STN (Super-Twisted Nematic)

Monochrome passive matrix LCD type. STN matrix displays require less electricity and are less expensive than TFT LCD panels. The disadvantages of STN are much lower image quality and slower response time compared to TFT.

T

TAB (Tape Automated Bonding)

The process of placing bare chips on a printed circuit board (PCB). First, they are attached to a polyamide film, and then they are transferred to the destination, soldered to the PCB and protected with epoxy or plastic resin.

TFT (Thin-Film Transistor)

A special type of transistor mostly used in color active matrix liquid crystal displays. TFT-controlled panels enable much better image performance than other solutions used (e.g. STN).

TN (Twisted Nematic)

The so-called. twisted nematic, one of the first technologies that made liquid crystals practical for information visualization. TN matrices are cheap and have very fast response times. Disadvantages of TN matrices include very poor viewing angles, lack of color stability over time and uniformity across the panel, and uneven backlighting.

U

uxTouch

A type of display that is designed as a combination of TFT LCD, capacitive touch panel with multitouch and modern decorative glass. A special feature of this series is that it allows the customer to customize the display extensively, so they can get a unique, project-specific solution.

V

VATN (Vertical Alignment Twisted Nematic)

A type of LCD technology in which the liquid crystals align themselves naturally vertically with the glass substrate. When the LCD panel is unplugged, the liquid crystals remain perpendicular to the substrate, while when voltage is applied, the liquid crystals move in an inclined position, allowing light to pass through. The optical performance of VATN displays is significantly superior to classic STN, FSTN and DFSTN. Much higher contrast, deep blacks and better viewing angles allow for a better looking and functional device. There is practically no grayscale inversion effect in them. Their limitation is a maximum multiplexing of 1/16, which in practice means that graphic displays with a vertical resolution greater than 16 pixels cannot be made with this technology. The technology is mainly used for icon and alphanumeric displays.

W

Warstwa AF (anti-fingerprint)

A layer that covers the surface of the display to protect it from dirt caused by finger touch.

Warstwa AG (anti-glare)

A protective layer that covers the surface of the display to improve the readability of the displayed content. Re duces glare from external light sources, such as strong sunlight. The anti-glare layer uses the phenomenon of diffusion. It diffuses the reflected image so that the user’s eye focuses on viewing the displayed content instead of the reflected image.

Warstwa AR (anti-reflective)

A protective layer that covers the surface of the display to improve the readability of the displayed image. The anti-reflective layer reduces glare from both external sources (sunlight) and internal sources (room lighting). It is used to “bend” the light, thus ensuring a large reduction in reflected images in the visible light spectrum, increasing the readability of the display by up to 99.5%.

Wyświetlacz alfanumeryczny (znakowy)

A display that provides information in the form of characters (numbers and/or letters).

Z

Zestaw deweloperski (development kit, dev-kit)

PCB board included with appropriate tapes and cables. With this combination, it is easier to connect the display to another device such as a computer. Using a developer kit streamlines the testing and prototyping process.

ZIF (Zero Insertion Force)

A type of connector that does not require the use of force. Mostly used to connect FPC tape to the PCB.

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